### Operators

Operator is a symbol that is used to perform specific operations like mathematical, relational or logical operations.

There are different types of operators. Below are some the most common operators

- Mathematical Operators.
- Assignment Operators.
- Relational Operators.
- Logical Operators.

Apart from these, there are couple of more types.

- Identity Operators.
- Membership Operators.

Let's have a look at each of these.

#### Mathematical Operators

Mathematical operators are used to perform mathematical operations (as name states) with numeric values.

These are operators like '+' Addition, '-' Subtraction, '*' Multiplication, '/' Division, '%' Modulus, '//' Floor Division and '**' Exponentiation.

a = 10

b = 5

c = a + b

*# Addition of two variables, Result would be c = 15*

c = a - b

*# Subtraction of second variable from first variable, Result would be c = 5*

c = a * b

*# Multiplication of two variables, Result would be c = 50*

c = a / b

*# Division, Divides first variable with second variable, Result would be c = 2.0. Result for the division operation would always be float.*

c = a % b

*# Modulus, Returns the reminder after dividing first variable with second variable. Result would be c = 0. If a = 11, b = 5, then Result would be c = 1*

c = a // b

#

*Floor Division, Divides first variable (a) with second variable (b) and returns the whole number only.**Result would be c = 2*c = a ** b

*# Exponentiation, Calculating the first variable (a) with the power of second variable (b),*

*Result would be c = 10000.*

#### Assignment Operators

Assignment Operators are used to assign value to a variable.

One of the assignment operators is '=' (equal to) to assign a value to a variable. In python, a variable is declared when a value is assigned.

a = 10

*# This defines a integer variable 'a' and assigns a value '10'*

Below are the few other assignment operators.

**Considering the current value of 'a' as '10' for all of these examples.*

'

**+=**' Adds the value on the right side to the current value of the variable.a += 5

*# adds 5 to the current value of 'a' (i.e., 10) and assigns it to 'a'. This is same as 'a = a + 5'.*

'

**-=**' Subtracts the value on the right side from the current value of the variable.a -= 5

*# subtracts 5 from the current value of 'a' (i.e., 10) and assigns it to 'a'. This is same as 'a = a - 5'.*

'

***=**' Multiplies the value on the right side with the current value of the variable.a *= 5

*# multiplies 5 with the current value of 'a' (i.e., 10) and assigns it to 'a'. This is same as 'a = a * 5'.*

'

**/=**' Divides the current value of the variable with the value on the right side.a /= 5

*# divides the current value of 'a' (i.e., 10) with 5 and assigns to 'a'. This is same as 'a = a / 5'.*

'

**%=**' Divides the current value of the variable with the value on the right side to calculate the remainder.a %= 5

*# divides the current value of 'a' (i.e., 10) with 5 and assigns the remainder to 'a'. This is same as 'a = a % 5'.*

'

**//=**' Divides the current value of the variable with the value on the right side and assign the resulting whole number.a //= 5

*# (Floor) divide the current value of 'a' (i.e., 10) with '5' and assigns it to 'a'. This is same as 'a = a // 5'.*

'

****=**' Calculate the exponent of the variable to the power of value on the right side.a **= 5

*# Calculate the current value of 'a' (i.e., 10) to the power of 5 and assigns it to 'a'. This is same as 'a = a ** 5'.*

*Relational Operators*

Relational Operators are used to compare the relation between two variables (e.g. greater than, less than, equal to...).

Below are the Relational operators.

- Equal To (==), used to check if the variables on either sides are equal (
**a == b**). Returns True if equal and False if not equal. - Not Equal To (!=), used to check if the variables on either sides are not equal (
**a != b**). Returns True if not equal and False if equal. - Greater than (>), used to check if the left side variable is greater than the right side variable (
**a > b**). Returns True if greater and False if not greater. - Greater than or Equal to (>=), used to check if the left side variable is either greater or equal to right side variable (
**a >= b**). Returns True if greater than or equal and False if not. - Less than (<), used to check if the left side variable is less than the right side variable (
**a < b**). Returns True if less and False if not less. - Less than or Equal to (<=), used to check if the left side variable is either less or equal to right side variable (
**a <= b**). Returns True if less than or equal and False if not.

#### Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to combine multiple conditions and returns if the result is True or False.

- 'and', returns True if conditions on either sides are True and returns False if at least one of them is False.

(a > b) and (c > d)

*# if both conditions (a > b) and (c > d) are True, then the result would be True. If at least one of them is False, then result would be False.*

- 'or', returns True if one of the condition is True and returns False if both of them are False.

(a > b) or (c > d)

*# if at least one of the condition (a > b) or (c > d) are True, then result would be True. If both conditions are False, then result would be False.*

- 'not', returns the opposite value of the current condition. If the condition is True, not would return False and vice versa.

not (a > b)

*# if (a > b) is True, then the result would False. if (a > b) is False, then result would be True.*

#### Identity Operators

Identity Operators are used to identify if a value belongs to particular class or type.

- 'is', returns True if the type (or value) on the left side matches with the type (or value) mentioned on the right side.

E.g.:

a = 10

print(type(a) is int) #

*prints True, as the data type of 'a' is int and the condition is satisfied.*a = 10

b = 11

print(a is b) #

*prints False, as the values of 'a' and 'b' aren't same.*- 'is not', returns False if the type (or value) on the left side doesn't match with the type (or value) mentioned on the right side.

E.g.:

a = 10

print(type(a) is not int) #

*prints False, as the data type of 'a' is int and the condition is not satisfied.*a = 10

b = 11

print(a is not b) #

*prints True, as the values of 'a' and 'b' aren't same.*

#### Membership Operators

Membership operators are used to check if the value on the left side is part of the sequence (list or tuples).

- 'in', returns True if the left side value is part of sequence mentioned on the right side. returns False if not part of sequence mentioned on the right side.

**E.g.:**

a = [1, 2, 3]

b = 2

print(b in a) #

*prints True as '2' is part of list 'a'*- 'not in', returns False if the left side value is part of sequence mentioned on the right side. returns True if not part of sequence mentioned on the right side.

**E.g.:**

a = [1, 2, 3]

b = 2

print(b not in a) #

*prints False as '2' is part of list 'a'*

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